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THIS IS THE HUB, THE GATEWAY TO ALL MY HANDKE BLOGS

and the dozen plus HANDKE-SCRIPTMANIA sites. I welcome thoughtful critical comments on literary matters and especially for the Handke-Yugo blog. Michael Roloff, June 2010, Seattle.

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IS THE OVER-ARCHING SITE FOR ALL HANDKE BLOGS AND ALL HANDKE.SCRIPTMANIA.COM SITES, THAT IS FOR THE HANDKE PROJECT AS A WHOLE. It will have one page with links to every page on each blog and for each page on each handke.scriptmania site. Michael Roloff

Saturday, November 10, 2018

NESTROY PRIZE FOR HANDKE

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 Nestroy-Preis für sein Lebenswerk an Peter Handke

08.11.2018
Peter Handke erhält den Nestroy-Preis für sein Lebenswerk. In der Jurybegründung heißt es: »Publikumsbeschimpfung und Selbstbezichtigung, beide 1966 uraufgeführt, waren radikale Infragestellungen von Konventionen, kraftvolle, selbstbewusste Statements. Stücke wie Das Spiel vom Fragen oder Die Stunde da wir nichts voneinander wußten waren Anfang der 1990er poetische und teilweise sprachlose Bühnenerzählungen, die in märchenhafte Welten entführten. Immer noch Sturm, 2011 mit dem Nestroy-Autorenpreis ausgezeichnet, oder zuletzt Die Unschuldigen, ich und die Unbekannte am Rand der Landstraße betrieben historische Spurensuche und rieben sich an der Gegenwart. Kein Zweifel: Peter Handke, der demnächst seinen 76. Geburtstag feiert, hat Theatergeschichte geschrieben. Er, der sich bewusst aus der Zeit nimmt, war in seinen Stücken stets auch ein Spiegel für die Gesellschaft, von der er sich ostentativ fernhält.
Handkes gigantisches Werk, vom Suhrkamp Verlag in eine 11.400 Seiten umfassende Handke Bibliothek gefasst, ist zu guten Teilen auch das eines Dramatikers und umfasst über 20 Stücke, elf davon von Claus Peymann zur Uraufführung gebracht. Sie sind keine Well-made-Plays, keine mit routinierten Theatermitteln zum Laufen zu bringende Dialog-Maschinen, sondern in ihrer ganzen Eigensinnigkeit auch Widerstandsakte gegen die Gewohnheiten des Herstellens und Wahrnehmens. Nicht nur in dieser Hinsicht ist sich Handke in den über 50 Jahren seit seiner Publikumsbeschimpfung treu geblieben. Doch die Regisseurinnen und Regisseure, die sich diesem imponierenden Lebenswerk nähern, seien daran erinnert, dass er von ihnen nicht nur Genauigkeit und Ernsthaftigkeit fordert, sondern ihnen auch Mut zuspricht: ›Überrascht mich!‹«
Prämiert werden Theaterschaffende österreichischer Bühnen in Aufführungen des vorangegangenen Theaterjahres. Der Preis für die beste Aufführung wird für den gesamtdeutschen Raum vergeben.
Die Auszeichnung wird am 17. November bei der 19. Nestroy-Gala im Theater an der Wien vergeben.
 https://www.suhrkamp.de/news/nestroy-preis_fuer_sein_lebenswerk_an_peter_handke_3015.htmlhttps://www.suhrkamp.de/news/nestroy-preis_fuer_sein_lebenswerk_an_peter_handke_3015.html

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Knausgaard's essay on International Ibsen Award winner Peter Handke https://archipelagobooks.org/2014/09/read-karl-ove-knausgaards-essay-on-international-ibsen-award-winner-peter-handke

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Another common, enduring feature of Handke’s books is precisely the journeys, the wanderings, the constant hikes through different landscapes – as in his most recent novel, The Great Fall [Der Große Fall], which begins with an actor waking up in a strange house and wandering around the undefined no-man’s landscape outside a large city, and which ends when he reaches the city centre in the evening – and this feature of always being in motion, always on the way to another place, belongs to the fundamental structure of the Western epic tradition. I’m thinking, of course, of The Odyssey and of Odysseus’ long journey-peter-handke/

Saturday, September 8, 2018

ROLOFF’S CASE WHY PETER HANDKE THE BEST AND MOST IMPORTANT LIVING WRITER

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ROLOFF’S CASE WHY PETER HANDKE
THE BEST AND MOST IMPORTANT LIVING WRITER

Perhaps you will indulge my below brief? Not just for Handke’s sake, but for literature, for the logos for whose sake, at least best as a not total idiot like myself can tell, has done more in recent memory to salvage and elaborate.  
However, near invariably, ever since his intervention in behalf of “justice for Serbia” in the early 90s, not just he but his work, initially well if of course imperfectly received, has been defamed in the U.S, and English-speaking domains for what I have come to regard not as just another marvelous exhibitionist and defiant performance of his, but an act of great courage – as a German-Austrian Slovenian he might well have left the matter with Slovenia becoming independent. Folks basically keep reviewing the same “Journeys to the River” that upset them so much in the 90s, and have neither read his preceding or subsequent Yugoslav-centered texts. I myself, who feel ambivalent about Handke as a person, for cause, then must have spent at least a year of my life mucking around the Yugoslav troubles, not what I thought I would be doing.


Handke’s love - one cannot argue with love, can one? - for the 2nd Federation, and its inheritor defender, Serbia, overcame whatever inhibitions, and what his then closest friends in Paris advised.
   Here two links that tell the story of the sorry U.S Handke reception.


However, you may feel about the Yugoslav matter, or how differently and less contentiously Handke might have dealt with it, his work, starting I would say with his great 1981 dramatic poem WALK ABOUT THE VILLAGES [Ariadne Press] and the novel part of his “Long Homecoming” cycle, and his first walking book, THE REPETIION [1985], provides its readers with increasingly richer experiences, in the instance of Homecoming of an encounter with Alaska as nature as such… see my
The walking rhythms of The Repetition induced in me a profound sense of being. Mannheim does a creditable job in having similar pacing in the translation, though in general I far prefer his current prose translator, Krishna Winston except in those instances when she comes a cropper at difficult critical instances.
 I have friends who share my conviction that the end – the Berg und Tal Fahrt of SIERRA DEL GREDOS - is the greatest ending ever written; if you take a peak at the beginning of Gredos you will find a few pages that describe the root system of one the trees that were felled by the Orkan that hit Northern France in the late 90s – as finely perceived as a Vermeer painting or as Eudora Welty describe matters in her Oranges – her peeling of her pear made a lasting impression.
The opening of the epic narrative Moravian Night manifest the most extraordinary gradualness and artfulness – if only for his artfulness ought the mature Handke be praised to the skies.
The most recently – summer 2018 - published translation of his work, THE GREAT FALL

  
has a similar though equally powerful but shorter denouement to that of Gredos.  

What most likely – if we are to believe him – is the last of his five epics – the 2017 Alexia, the Fruit Thief [following The Repetition, the 1994 One Year in the No-Man’s Bay, the 2000 Across the Sierra del Gredos, and the 2007 Moravian Night] is a most joyous and adventurous exploration of the French Picardie.


I read large stretches of it with the same excitement that I read Karl May’s adventure stories as a youngster. Handke being Handke and wanting to assure future scholarly attention to his work – next to Goethe and Kafka he is already the third most written about German author and his notebooks are shared between the Austrian and German national archives and are accessible on line



– gets the scholar mice on their way by claiming, also in interviews, that Wolfram von Eschenbach’s 13th century Willehalm stands in back of Alexia! Such a sly bastard!

It turns out that young Handke practiced writing the way Yehudi Menuhin did the violin & as a twenty-something reviewer for Austrian Radio it looks as though he was possessed of all critical knowledge and instruments!

As dramatist


Handke has Shakespearean dimension; of especial to interest to you might be the great political dramatic text, the best thing that he got immediately out of his involvement in Yugoslavia, Dugout Canoe, the Play about the Film about the War’; its first rate translation by Scott Abbott can be found in the Spring 2016 issue of Performing Arts Journal - Canoe is at least one step beyond Brecht in that it manifests the awareness of media as god.
 One first rate piece - 1997 Zurüstungen für die Unsterblichkeit. Königsdrama, (Preparations for Immortality: A Royal Drama), play is the only one that remains untranslated and Handke, last time I saw him, expressed reservations about Kaspar – which takes off from the Kaspar Hauser legend - one of his most famous and often done major plays – and its slavish translator then   dwelled on what one might object to in such a tour de force about language and politics [well worth doing again this point!]: that it was a bit noisy, hysterical, the way Oedipal contentions with a father can be, perhaps nihilistic in its ending, too anarchist?

For me the most fruitful approach to all his work, especially the plays - in conscious disregard of the usual literary categories - is to regard them as happenings and, thus, to dwell on the experiences that they createSeveral of the plays - THE RIDE ACROSS LAKE CONSTANCE & THE HOUR WE KNEW NOTHING OF EACH OTHER - achieve catharsis, in mysterious – by Aristotelian or Brechtian/ non-Aristotelian, but in seemingly positivist and therefore that is   expected ways, Ride via the use of Wittgensteinian language game-querying breaks down the resistance of the audience, at least mine who as the translator of anything but a “reading play” had really no idea what to expect from a performance: certainly not such a liberating experience as I would not  have again until I had what are called “good hours” while doing a psychanalysis. - Hour, the play – it is wordless - does something similar via an unending succession of change of images of the personages that appear in different, often fairy-tale garb; something subliminally mesmerizing occurs. Hour also manifests Handke as a supreme linguistic virtuoso: He takes you by your syntax as though it was your braid and does not let go until Z – it is one of the very great texts! 
The other great plays are the prize winning family resistance drama 2012 Storm Still, The Art of Asking, and of course his very first and still amazing essay-play Offending the Audience. And I think the last work I will have translated, the 2010 play that gets to the heart of pornography and erotic love, The Beautiful Days of Aranjuez.


 The work starting with the greatest and richest play, the 1981 Walk About the Villages and 1985 The Repetition certainly came as a huge surprise to this translator who was well aware that Handke initially presented himself as “the new Kafka” – justly so it would seem if you take a look at the first novels and plays which on first glance seem rife with Kafkaesque anxiety – yet there he was, a kid with a Beatles haircut, cheerful and irreverent, and if you take a look at novels and plays like My Foot My Tutor, Radio Play One, Goalies Anxiety and Die Hornissen & Der Hausierer, rather amazingly - though they play with anxiety they end up dispelling and overcoming it, in the most literary ways! An odd use to which to put literature until you find out that writing from his earliest beginning was a way for him to still his anxiety – and ample reason for profound intra-psychic anxiety existed – an instance that once again proves Freud’s conversion theory! - not just because of the bombing attacks to which he was subjected in Berlin as of 1943 [I in  Bremen had my initial bombing trauma in Spring 1940], but because he – love child of love children if ever there was - was exposed, as of age two, to a decade of brutal primal scenes – his mother married a comrade of the married German soldier love of her life and Handke became the surrogate love object – and I think mother love in this instance then overcame and continuous to instill joy into his prose – the Austrian literateur Peter Strasser even wrote a book to the effect of Handke’s work instilling joy Der Freudenstoff: Zu Handke eine Philosophie http://www.worldcat.org/title/freudenstoff-zu-handke-eine-philosophie/oclc/22723646
   Not that an excess of mother love cannot get a young layabroad into a heap of trouble. Subsequent the shock of his mother’s suicide in 1971 [see Sorrow Beyond Dreams] his first wife left the layabroad who if not neglecting her was writing or tarrying with broads who all wanted to get laid! The twin abandonment nearly drove him to suicide: see the three long poems of Nonsense & Happiness ­­– where he loved the word “humbug” I found for what was bugging him.
There is an early play, Quodlibet, that points to what  Handke is about,  Quodlibet – “the play that catches the conscience of the king” [the audience now is king!] works on the principle of auditory hallucination – that is, it wishes to make the audience aware of its own projections; activist as the plays are Handke’s novels are projection screens – making you aware of aspects of yourself, while Handke becomes a master narrator, perhaps that is all, but what an all it is, that literature can achieve as well as to teach us to read by testing the limits of  syntax and of the duree of reading. Goalie, as of page one, syntactically involves the reader in the mind of a paranoid schizophrenic! Later, in the 90s One Dark Night I Left my Silent House he writes in dream syntax, the novel Absence in being read is experienced as a film! Del Gredos, whose protagonist is a bankieress who used to be an actress, has sudden passages which are experienced as film – and I recall shaking my head at the wizard’s sleight of hand. All this magic of course is not only done to show “Look Ma, no hands” but has a kinesthetic effect that induces renovating catharses. - Handke wrote me, around the time he completed the mid-70s rather suicidal A Moment of True Feeling -  redeemed by the sight of a reminder that he had a child to take care of - that he now was capable of doing everything he wanted with words, and I imagine that these technical feats – the sort of thing that has always interested this aging Joycean – proves that he was not boasting. His prose, initially influenced by the nouveauists, even then warmer, has become the supplest of instruments that shows how he has incorporated the great European and American prose stylists, perhaps Arab too since he reads Arabic.

I should not fail to mention two further dimensions: his assaying work as I call his novel way of exploring certain subjects – the Jukebox, fatigue, being a fool for mushrooms, what it meant as boarding school kid to seek refuge in the shithouse – by simultaneously anchoring these explorations in examinations of place. Three Essays was published a few years ago, and the remainder are in the works. To these assaying I would add Don Juan, as told by himself, a gem that the Nabokovians ought to compare with that master’s work. – In other words, Handke creates unique works of art.

The other important dimension is that Handke has published half a dozen excerpts from his note books that show the writer constantly “cooking” a jazz writer might say, of which unfortunately only the first, The Weight of the World exists in English – as to exhibiting your self how much else is there one might do? All translated into the Romance languages which have been kinder to Handke.

Frank Kermode initially introduced Handke to the U.S and English-speaking world as a model modernist

without deep knowledge of its Austrian variant. - I must say I, too, was unreflectively so at one time, a Poundian ABC of Reading aficionado who thought a “magazine” was the thing but who  eventually gave thought to what the modernism wanted after all its brush clearing; that is, to return to, in Pound’s case, a large variety of beautiful past matters; that is, modernism contained the germ not just of renovation but of deeply reactionary matters.-  Handke’s chief director, the great Klaus Peymann, teased him a few years ago by observing that Handke had become touchingly conservative! It appears that his obsession with newspapers has ceased but for the reading of Parisien & a soccer paper, his TV broke down five years ago & has not been repaired, occasionally he has friends over and they listen to a match! And in the matter of being at the forefront of psychology, he continues to be a laggard, no matter how progressive his prose innovations.

Handke uses his own life as the sources for his prose texts and drama in the instance of the Slovenian resistance family play Storm Still, and in that fashion exhibits what I call the Yoknapatawpha of his self.

Handke takes pride in not repeating himself, but only explores, I would say, certain formal possibilities to their limits, the way a musician might, and thus manifests his formalist origins, he regards himself as a realist, and as a prose writer certainly stands in the great tradition, but he is never a naturalist of any kind – which is part of the problem here in the USA, which does not grow but merely keeps duplicating itself.
The play Walk About the Villages its rhythms reverberate through his texts for many years; it became a touchstone of his; unfortunately Farrar Straus did not see fit to publish his great diary excerpt The History of the Pencil, which shows what thought he gave to Villages as it developed and his recourse to Greek drama of which he, a great translator from half a dozen languages, has translated several, as he has Shakespeare. FSG - where he has had at least ten different mostly assigned editors in the 50 years that he has been their author - failed to do Pencil despite the success of the first of these kinds of compilations, of Weight of the World, a depressive’s Nietzsche title! Aside being a love child intra-uterine Handke absorbed, anaclytically, his mother’s depression upon his actual father not marrying her – so one might suppose if one considers mother and son’s similar dispositions. – I think Handke knew fairly early on, upon deciding to live at the outskirts of a big city in the early 70s, that he would be a classic; he has done all the things that the great German classical and romantic poets have done, in original ways.

Handke is not a psychological writer – vide Left-Handed Woman – and there are folks whom this bothers, but not psychoanalytically trained me, who appreciates Handke’s kind of existentialism.

It is not that he does manifest moments, such as in the most recent marvel that I call ALEXIA, FRUIT THIEF where this alleged world traveling mid-twenties French sometimes runaway covets but one song and it is rap by Eminem, a moment of daftness also characteristic of his gauche behavior during his younger days which I put off to the left-overs not of his provincial piss-pot poor origins but his highest order autism, to which I also attribute the affinity he mentions throughout years of his texts, with such autistic idiots – and to his autism I ascribe his ultra sensitivity, eyes of a hawks, a bloodhounds nose, ears of a bat – I don’t know which animal had most sensitive skin, a porpoise?
  I love the guy most next to my heroic mother, yet some of his action have made me ambivalent, which elicits the thought that maybe that is why I haven’t become too parti pris. There are instances of physical violence, he can lie, hates being caught with his hands in the cookie jar [who does? After all!], and despite being one of the most generous can be real-low-life mean; can lash out unthinkingly even against those closest to him; suffers from certain features endemic to this enterprise - A mama’s boy has in that respect got a bit too much of a good thing – and still lacks a father figure but for his Slovenian grandfather, who voted for the first Yugoslav federation in 1919. – Oh yes, by the mid-90s, as of the writing of the magnificent portrait of six sides of an artist – My Year in the No-Man’s Bay ­– the once “new Kafka” began to muse that he was the new Goethe – in a number of respect that is indeed the case.

Enough already!

Sunday, August 19, 2018

notizbuecher-von-peter-handke-mein-zuhause-sind-die-farben

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Eine Sammlung unwillkürlicher Selbstgespräche.„Empfänglich sein ist alles“ und andere Weisheiten. Notizbuch vom Ende Juli 2010.Foto: Chris Korner/DLA Marbacg

Freundliche Waffen
Mit „Das stehende Jetzt“ leitet Ulrich von Bülow die Exegese von Peter Handkes Notizbüchern ein
Von Lothar StruckRSS-Newsfeed neuer Artikel von Lothar Struck
Besprochene Bücher / Literaturhinweise

Am 18. Oktober 2017 präsentierte Ulrich von Bülow, Leiter des Archivs beim Deutschen Literaturarchiv in Marbach (DLA), zusammen mit Peter Handke den Erwerb von 154 Notizbüchern des Autors, die den Zeitraum von 1990 bis 2015 erfassen. Seit 2007 befinden sich bereits 67 Notizbücher Handkes im Besitz des DLA, die zwischen 1975 und 1990 geschrieben wurden.

I am just reading. noticed that handke takes recourse to Spinoza for this ideology of freude, which I am starting to share considering how happy his work as of a certain point makes me, aside whatever literary consideration I..e above and beyond. m.r


https://literaturkritik.de/handke-buelow-das-stehende-jetzt-die-notizbuecher-von-peter-handke-freundliche-waffen,25014.html
Im Halbrund aufgestellt, aneinandergelehnt und übereinandergestapelt, wie das Deutsche Literaturarchiv Marbach die 221 Notizbücher im vergangenen Oktober präsentierte, handelt es sich um ein Ehrfurcht gebietendes Textgebirge. Seine 33 000 Seiten, die Peter Handke von 1975 bis 2015 an insgesamt 14 600 Tagen anfertigte, ragen auch vor treuen Lesern als weitgehend unerschlossenes Massiv auf. Die Journale, die ihren Weg sorgsam ausgewählt aus der Kladde ins Buch fanden, „Das Gewicht der Welt“ oder zuletzt „An der Baumschattenwand nachts“, geben zwar einen Eindruck von Ton und Gehalt dieser Aufzeichnungen. Doch ihren besonderen Charakter gewinnen sie daraus, dass sie in ihrer Unkonzentriertheit eben nicht das Werk wollen, sondern das ewige Wuchern und die ewige Vorläufigkeit.
Ihr Ideal ist die permanente Weltmitschrift aus den Augenwinkeln heraus, leicht errungen und gedanklich noch nicht ausgehärtet. Gerade in dieser nach einer unmöglichen Totalität strebenden Summe verlieren die Notizbücher ihren Schrecken. Man könnte auch sagen: Sie mussten in dieser Vollständigkeit geschrieben werden – sie müssen nur nicht in dieser Vollständigkeit gelesen werden. Mit ihren das Ungestalte in eine unreine Form rettenden Wahrnehmungsexerzitien machen sie sich selbst überflüssig.
Die schönste Abkürzung durch ihre vielstimmigen Unendlichkeiten bietet jetzt ein von Ulrich von Bülow herausgegebenes Marbacher Magazin. Mit Faksimiles reich illustriert, macht es ein Projekt so sinnlich wie intellektuell begreiflich, das den Schriftbesessenen und Zeichner in seinen wichtigsten Facetten zeigt: den Naturbeobachter, der das Nebensächliche zu den Hauptsachen erklärt. Den im Halbdämmer Traumspuren festhaltenden Diaristen. Und den zwischen dem Streuobst seines Bewusstseins gezielt Lesefrüchte auflesenden Protokollanten


Natürlich sind die Notizbücher auch das Labor der Romane, aber eher im Sinne einer Einübung in ein Erzählklima als in einer Skizze des noch Auszuführenden. Ulrich von Bülows einführender Essay in Handkes Selbstkultivierungstechniken ist in seiner Kürze und Dichte ein Glanzstück des Bandes. Erhellend auch die Abschrift eines öffentlichen Gesprächs, das Handke und von Bülow zur Erwerbung der Notizbücher am 18. Oktober 2017 in Marbach führten. Der Autor gibt darin selten aufgeräumt Auskunft über seine Entwicklung.
Unter anderem klärt er die Bedeutung des Kürzels „U. S.“, das für „unwillkürliches Selbstgespräch“ steht. „Ich denke manchmal irgendetwas, und das ist in dem Moment derartig blöd, manchmal wie von Karl Valentin“, erklärt Handke. „Zum Beispiel: ,Ich wundere mich über gar nichts mehr.‘ Und dann sage ich mir: ,Dann lass dich doch gleich begraben.‘ Das ist überhaupt kein Gedanke, das ist ein unwillkürliches Selbstgespräch.“
In weiteren Essays widmet sich Ulrich von Bülow Handkes „Heidegger-Lektüren“ und den „Spinoza-Lektüren“. Vor allem der letztgenannte Aufsatz leistet Pionierarbeit. Er weist nach, wie Spinozas „Ethik“, ein umfassender, vom Ontologischen bis zum Erkenntnistheoretischen reichender philosophischer Entwurf, der Gott und Natur in eins setzt, Handkes 1979 mit „Langsame Heimkehr“ einsetzende Tetralogie zu prägen begann. Auch „Das stehende Jetzt“, der Titel des Marbacher Bandes, geht auf jene Zeit zurück. In seiner lateinischen Variante „Nunc stans“, die das Zusammenfallen von Moment und Ewigkeit meint, erprobte er den von ihm eigenwillig interpretierten Begriff in seinen Notizbüchern, ehe er 1980 in die ersten Sätze der „Lehre der Sainte-Victoire“ Eingang fand. „Einmal bin ich in den Farben zu Hause gewesen“, heißt es da. „Naturwelt und Menschenwerk, eins durch das andere, bereiteten mir einen Beseligungsmoment, den ich aus den Halbschlafbildern kenne, und der Nunc stans genannt worden ist.“
Das Nunc stans ist bis heute das beste Mittel, den Grundwiderspruch von Handkes Projekt, vielleicht sogar aller Kunst, aufzulösen: nämlich ein Sehen, das sich erst im Schreiben verwirklicht – und dadurch der Welt bereits als etwas Anderes, für immer Fixiertes gegenübertritt. So, wie die angehaltene Zeit in den Strom der Dinge zurückfließt, um von Neuem angehalten zu werden, geschieht es auch mit dem objektivierten Satz und dem lebendigen Bewusstsein.
Das stehende Jetzt. Die Notizbücher von Peter Handke. Gespräch mit dem Autor und Essays von Ulrich von Bülow. 152 S., 18 €. Bestellung: www.dla-marbach.de



Freundliche Waffen

Mit „Das stehende Jetzt“ leitet Ulrich von Bülow die Exegese von Peter Handkes Notizbüchern ein

Von Lothar StruckRSS-Newsfeed neuer Artikel von Lothar Struck

Besprochene Bücher / Literaturhinweise
Am 18. Oktober 2017 präsentierte Ulrich von Bülow, Leiter des Archivs beim Deutschen Literaturarchiv in Marbach (DLA), zusammen mit Peter Handke den Erwerb von 154 Notizbüchern des Autors, die den Zeitraum von 1990 bis 2015 erfassen. Seit 2007 befinden sich bereits 67 Notizbücher Handkes im Besitz des DLA, die zwischen 1975 und 1990 geschrieben wurden.
Anlässlich dieser Präsentation führte von Bülow ein Gespräch mit Handke, das als erster Beitrag in seinem Buch Das stehende Jetzt über die Notizbücher des Autors transkribiert ist. Es fällt ausführlicher aus als der seinerzeit im Deutschlandfunk Kultur ausgestrahlte Mitschnitt von knapp 30 Minuten. Danach folgen drei Essays von Bülows. Im ersten skizziert er Handkes Intentionen und den Stellenwert der Notizbücher im Werk des Dichters. Wie man mit diesen Büchern literaturwissenschaftlich arbeiten kann zeigt er, indem er Handkes Einträge über Lektüren von Martin Heidegger und Baruch de Spinoza extrahiert und deutet.
Die 67 Notizbücher bis Sommer 1990 sind für die Forschung seit geraumer Zeit zur Ansicht in Marbach (als Scans) verfügbar. Auf der Webseite Handkeonline werden für den Zeitraum von 1971 bis 1990 allerdings 79 Notizbücher (mit rund 10.000 Seiten) aufgelistet und ausgewertet. So wurden zwei Originale aus den frühen 1970er Jahren 2014 in der Schweiz ‚entdeckt‘. Andere Originale finden sich in Wien. Hinzu kommen noch einige in Privatbesitz befindliche, nicht erfasste Notizbücher. Inwieweit die 154 Kladden von 1990 bis 2015 komplett sind, kann nur das DLA sagen (Von Bülow erwähnt in einem Aufsatz im letzten Jahr 153 Notizbücher). Handke spricht von mindestens einem verlorenen Notizbuch.
Sieht man sich die Fotografien des Konvoluts im Buch an, zeigt sich, dass Handke für seine Aufzeichnungen nahezu alle Formen und Größen von Notizbüchern verwendet. Ob kartoniert, Softcover, Leder oder Wildleder, sogenannte Chinakladden oder Spiralblöcke (typisch für Handke: seine expressive Ablehnung gegenüber den populären „Moleskine“-Büchern). Er bevorzugt blanko, aber eben auch mit Linien oder kariert. Meist sind sie im Taschenformat A6; manche kleiner, einige A5. Die Seitenzahl variiert zwischen 40 und 300. Von Bülow quantifiziert die in Marbach befindlichen 221 Notizbücher mit insgesamt mehr als 33.000 Seiten. Manche sind eng beschrieben, einige wieder sehr großzügig. Es finden sich viele Zeichnungen Handkes in den Büchern. Zuweilen werden Postkarten, Zeitungsausschnitte, kleine Pflanzen oder Federn eingelegt. Die Schrift des Autors ist meist gut lesbar, auch wenn sie über die Jahre variiert. Geschrieben wird mit allem Verfügbaren: Kugelschreiber, Filzstift, seltener Bleistift. Die Bücher befinden sich zuweilen in desolatem Zustand, weil sie Wind und Wetter ausgesetzt waren.
Handke legt Wert auf die Bezeichnung „Notizbücher“. Obwohl die Eintragungen praktisch täglich erfolgten, sind es tatsächlich keine Tagebücher im klassischen Sinn. Das Datum erwähnt er eher unregelmäßig. Persönliche Befindlichkeiten, Klatsch und Tratsch sowie politische Statements fehlen fast vollständig. Eine berühmt gewordene Ausnahme sind Artikel zu vier hingerichteten chinesischen Menschenrechtlern, denen er in seinem Film Die Abwesenheit gedenkt. Die frühen Notizbücher (1971 bis cirka 1975) kommen eher „Arbeitsjournalen“ nahe, weil sie sich explizit und ausschließlich mit einem geplanten Buch oder Theaterstück auseinandersetzen. Danach erweitert Handke das Spektrum seiner Eintragungen hin zu „Aufzeichnungen zweckfreier Wahrnehmungen“. Notiert werden jetzt nicht nur werkimmanente konzeptuelle Überlegungen (die zum Teil „Projekte“ aufzeigen, die Jahre, nicht selten Jahrzehnte später zu Titeln führen), sondern auch Beobachtungen, Lektüreeindrücke und -reflexionen, Gesehenes und Gehörtes, Erinnerungen, Assoziationen, Träume.
Reserviert bis ablehnend steht Handke Interpretationen gegenüber, die in den Notaten „Übungen“ oder eine Art „Training“ für ein später entstehendes Werk sehen wollen. Im sehr instruktiven Gespräch mit von Bülow erläutert er überraschend deutlich seine Ambitionen: „vieles, was einem so nebenbei als Form, als Sprachform begegnet, ist für einen Moment da und verschwindet im nächsten wieder, so wie eine – Sternschnuppe muss man ja nicht sagen – aber wie eine Art von Schnuppe, die vorbeigeht.“ Handke versucht nun diese durch vorurteilsfreies, intentionsloses „Schauen“ erreichten „Schnuppen“, das nunc stans eines Moments, das „stehende Jetzt“, zu versprachlichen und zu konservieren, oder, um es pathetischer zu sagen, zu retten. Es geht dabei, so fasst von Bülow zusammen, um „Momentaufnahmen, die poetische Gültigkeit beanspruchen können“ und das „Allgemeine und die Dauer“ festhalten. Dabei ist sich Handke der Fragilität solcher Verschriftlichung durchaus bewusst. Daher auch die immer wieder eingestreuten, mit Fragezeichen versehenen Selbstbefragungen beispielsweise in den von ihm so genannten „unwillkürlichen Selbstgesprächen“. Zahlreich auch Sprachspiele wie jenes vom „11. Gebot“. Wunderbar, wie er im kleinsten Käfer oder einfach nur einem verwelkten Blatt die Welt zu entdecken vermag – und dann nicht selten direkt wieder in eine Sprachskepsis gerät. Umfassend auch die Lektüreeindrücke (es gibt kaum jemanden, der so tief in das Gelesene einzudringen vermag wie Handke).
Handke selber spricht von seinen Notizbüchern als einer „freundlichen Waffe“, die er oft „ziehe“, um die „Gebilde“, die sich ihm „ob von innen oder außen oder von beidem, Innenwelt und Außenwelt“ zeigen, festzuhalten. Wer mit ihm schon einmal unterwegs war, weiß, wie das gemeint ist. Von „Manie“ möchte er dennoch nicht sprechen. Auch hier vermag man ihm Recht zu geben.
Im Laufe des Jahres 1976 begann Handke Notate aus seinen Büchern abzutippen. Hier muss der Entschluss zu einer Publikation gereift sein. Wo es ihm notwendig war, wurden die übernommenen Notizen gerafft und gegebenenfalls korrigiert. 1977 erschien mit Das Gewicht der Welt das erste „Journal“, wie die publizierten Extrakte der Notizbücher in Handkes Werk genannt werden. Je nach Epoche finden zwischen zwei Dritteln (in den ersten Journalen) und einem Viertel der Notizbücher Einlass in die Journale. Hiervon sind insgesamt sieben erschienen (in Klammern zunächst das Ersterscheinungsjahr, dann der Zeitraum der Notizen, die für das Journal Verwendung fanden):
Das Gewicht der Welt (1977 – 11/1975 bis 03/1977 ),
Die Geschichte des Bleistifts (1982 – 07/1976 bis 08/1982),
Phantasien der Wiederholung (1983 – 04/1981 bis 12/1982),
Am Felsfenster morgens (1998 – 08/1982 bis 10/1987),
Gestern unterwegs (2005 – 10/1987 bis 07/1990),
Ein Jahr aus der Nacht gesprochen (2010 – zwischen 2008 und 2010) und
Vor der Baumschattenwand nachts (2016 – zwischen 2007 und 2015).
Von Bülow zählt das eher sentenzenhafte Traumbuch Ein Jahr aus der Nacht gesprochen nicht direkt zu den Journalbänden.Die Erstpublikationen der Journale erfolgten bis auf Phantasien der Wiederholung nicht bei Suhrkamp, sondern im Residenz Verlag beziehungsweise ab 2005 bei Jung und Jung. Maßgeblich hierfür war die Freundschaft Handkes zu Jochen Jung. 2015 wurde ein Ausschnitt aus dem Notizbuch Nr. 16 bei Suhrkamp veröffentlicht.
Die Auflistung zeigt, dass aus den Notizbüchern vom Juli 1990 bis 2006 bis auf wenige Ausnahmen der „Traumbeschreibungen“ keine Notate für ein Journal Verwendung fanden. Mit dem Notizbuch Der Bildverlust; Das stumme Stück vom 9.2. bis 1.7.1990 (DLA-Notizbuch Nr. 67) endete die Möglichkeit der Einsicht für die Forschung in die Exponate. Über die Gründe hierfür wurde viel spekuliert. Im Juli 1990 bemerkt Handke, dass „kaum mehr ein Mit-Schreiben im Sinn der früheren Journale statt[finde]“. Hat Handke seine Intention, das „Unternehmen“ des voraussetzunglosen Schauens und Aufschreibens, verändert? Womöglich hängt es mit dem sich beginnenden Jugoslawien- beziehungsweise Serbien-Engagement des Autors zusammen, das Mitte der 1990er Jahre für längere Zeit auf großen Widerspruch stieß. Oder finden sich mehr persönliche Ein- und Auslassungen (auch über andere Persönlichkeiten des Betriebs) in den Büchern? Nach Auskunft von Ulrich von Bülow sind jetzt auch die neu erworbenen Exemplare einsehbar, allerdings nur mit Handkes Erlaubnis.
Wie praktische literaturwissenschaftliche Arbeit mit den Notizbüchern aussehen könnte, zeigt von Bülows in zwei Essays über die Einflüsse von Martin Heidegger und Baruch de Spinoza auf Denken und Werk Peter Handkes, die in diesem Buch ihre Heimstatt gefunden haben. Seine Quellen sind die Notizbücher bis Sommer 1990. Daneben vergleicht er die Notate mit den Übernahmen in den Journalen. Auf zahlreichen Fotografien kann der Leser einige zitierte Textstellen aus den Notizen selber nachlesen.
Heidegger habe Handke „spät, eher sporadisch und weniger intensiv“ gelesen, so von Bülow. Nachweisen lassen sich zwischen 1976 und 1986 rund ein halbes Dutzend Stellen, an denen sich Handke mit Heidegger beschäftigt, so beispielsweise mit seinem Aufsatz Bauen, Wohnen, Denken. Sein und Zeit dürfte Handke, so von Bülow, nicht gelesen haben beziehungsweise nur ausschnittweise. Die Hauptfigur in Handkes Erzählung Langsame Heimkehr (1979), ein Geologe, der den Namen Sorger trägt, sollte ursprünglich Heidegger-Leser sein. Handke sei dann jedoch davon abgerückt. Mit den vereinzelten Deutungsvorschlägen, der Name Sorger sei eine Anspielung auf Heidegger, kann von Bülow nicht viel anfangen. Handke habe, so die These, nur ab und an einzelne Formulierungen von Heideggers Sprach-Jargon, den er im Übrigen eher skeptisch betrachtet, verwendet.
Über Goethe kam Handke zu Spinoza. Schlüssig erläutert von Bülow anhand von Eintragungen zwischen 1980 und 1983, wie eng Handkes poetologisches Prinzip mit Spinozas „Konzept der Freude“ verwoben ist. Interessant sind auch die kleinen Parallelen zwischen Spinozas und Heideggers „Ding“-Betrachtungen. Aber auch Handkes Diskrepanzen zu einigen Aspekten von Spinozas Ethik (etwa den „Kausalismus“) werden herausgearbeitet. Am Ende entschied sich Handke in seiner Erzählung Die Lehre der Sainte-Victoire für Cézanne und nicht Spinoza als (seinen) „Menschheitslehrer“. Spinoza war ihm zu sehr ein mit apodiktischen Botschaften Daherkommender. Er präferierte den weichen, vorschlagenden, suchenden Cézanne. Dennoch finden sich im späteren Werk des Autors immer wieder Einflüsse von Spinoza.

Das vom Deutschen Literaturarchiv herausgebrachte Buch könnte – zusammen mit der gerade im Suhrkamp Verlag erschienenen Handke-Gesamtausgabe – ein Initial für eine umfassende Beschäftigung mit Handkes Notizen sein. Seit jeher werden seine Journale vom Publikum sehr geschätzt, was, wie Katharina Pektor unlängst in einem Aufsatz (Leuchtende Fragmente) anmerkte, womöglich daran liegt, dass meist Notate Verwendung finden, die eher aphoristischen Charakter besitzen. Wer über Handkes Werkgenese forscht, wird an den Originalen nicht vorbeikommen – das kann man schon bei Ansicht der bisher zugänglichen Notizbücher sehen – und zu zum Teil überraschenden, weiterführenden Erkenntnissen kommen. Mit dem neu zur Verfügung stehenden Konvolut gibt es eine Menge Arbeit.

Monday, August 6, 2018

ROLOFF REVIEW OF HANDKE'S THE GREAT FALL

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THE GREAT FALL
By Peter Handke
Translated by Krishna Winston
Seagull Books, distr. U. Of Chicago Press
https://tinyurl.com/y9om2d49

Has there ever been a writer like Austro-German-Slovenian author Peter Handke? Or one approximating him? Since 1964 Handke has published  three dozen  works of prose, two dozen on the shorter side compared to half a dozen of epic-length; as well as two dozen plays, and a few films, most of which work is available in translation - yet Handke does not repeat himself.  He has won just about every prize for prose expect the Nobel and for the theater the Ibsen Prize, the prize for drama. During the course of these fifty plus years the great walker that Handke has become has explored landscapes as varied as the French Picardie, the Spanish Del Gredos, the Slovenian Carso and the region near Paris where he has lived the past twenty five years and that he calls „No-Man’s-Bay”; and a burgeoning self. The act of reading his oeuvre provides a unique experience, that differs from work to work; reviewing Handke thus is demanding, an effort that repays itself, most times, in the form of great pleasure.
However, if you did not know identity or nationality of the author of the just published The Great Fall, chances are, reading its first chapter, you would say that it was of French origin; if truly well-read you might even consider that its hyper-observant, finely detailing author might be Peter Handke, and not a French wench. For, The Great Fall has a most  misleading first chapter: a man wakes up in a bed not his own,

"That day, the one that ended with the Great Fall, began with a morning storm. The man, the one who is to be the subject of this narration, was awakened by a powerful thunderclap. The house, along with the bed, will have trembled and for a long moment will have continued to shake. Moment: that had no connection to the man lying there. Frightened out of his sleep, he kept his eyes closed and waited -- how would the event continue."  {scott abbott’s tranlsation]

it is that of a long-time - it turns out - sleeping buddy whom he claims not to love, and which seems fine with her; she is already off to work; but, though the house still holds a few mysteries for its long-time visitor – he busies himself putting it in order as though he was the woman’s man-servant-house-husband.
  It’s a wonderful chapter with a Handkean thunderstorm and rain, and fantasy can imagine all kinds of erotic complications, especially if you know of the then aging layabroad’s perhaps still complicated erotic life. – Great Fall’s completion date is 2011, Handke was a nearly 70 year young daily walker who is having fun claiming that the book was written in the redneck town of Great Falls, Montana, a town that the world traveler visited once when his friend Wim Wenders was filming there.
    His chores completed, the protagonist – an actor,  a star actor, is Handke’s personae this time around – not an archaelogist or geolgist - a fact that ought to alert the reader that more than the usual sleight of hand business might be afoot - sets out on a big walk from its outskirts to Paris, and he has the characterist shoelace problems of Handke’s protagonists-personae; and, those familiar with Handke’s immense and varied walking oeuvre, will not be surprised to have the surrogate Handke walk backwards a few times, even up an incline this once. Moreover, the symbol hunters among the readers will notice any number of minor mishaps, a lemon seed becomes frustratingly lost under a bed, a coffee mug falls and shatters – ah premonitions of a „big fall” – well let me clue you in right now, there is no „great fall” as little as the books was written in „Great Falls” Montana.
 However, for the next seven of its nine chapters – that is not until near the end - there is really no mention of the house or the woman, although she enchants him at an eatery in Paris without his recognizing her at first – one of the actor’s numerous foibles being the inability recognize those closest to him in an unfamiliar setting. By the end of the book - that cuts short the imminent consummation - great love it seems has set in for that woman. „The face of a beautiful woman is a gate to paradize” the hater of veils states at one point.
The Great Fall is one of Handke’s many walking books, but a walking book of slow progress with many halts for fine and thorough and succinct exploration of a dozen or so extraordinary incidents, and near endless self-interrogating dialogue with himself, as he wends walks hops gropes slithers his way in truly adventurous and at times near animalistic fashion from the Paris outskits to the center of town – the book could lop off the first chapter and substitute the wonderful opening of Alexia, the Fruitthief



 - with the protagonist’s bare foot receiving the first bee-sting of the year - written six years later, also a summer book, that has for its narrator Peter Handke as dweller of the Noman’s-Bay of My Year in the Noman’s Bay and which refers to The Great Fall at a significant moment. Would anyone object to Handke titeling Great Fall „A Peter Handke Walk to the Center of Paris”? This strikes me as a summa of Handke Paris Walker’s best! The strongest experiences not necessarily the most pleasant of course. And if you want to interpret that walk – overll - as one to hell, or yet another of his trek’s to Golgotha, don’t let me stop you.
  Readers of Afternoon of a Writer,
 Handke’s short projection-drenched projection-screen walking novel of 1988, will be intrigued yet disappointed in the matter of Handke projecting in Great Fall, but for a few moments; doing so especially with the theme of helping and saving; that is, obviously, the actor being in need to be saved himself, as has been the case for decades, or at least since Tilman Moser noted as much in his piece on the 1974 A Moment of True Feeling.



Not that Handke had more but the briefest truck with the Tilman Moser’s of this world as you can note in his Weight of the World.  
Nor does the incremental walk that is The Great Fall, - unlike e.g. The Repetition
 - induce any kind of walking pace in me, but is an instance of Handke stringing together fascinating - initially unrelated - incidents and observations accumulated during those many walks, and whose cumulation as he penetrates further into Paris become darkly visionary. There is a streak of violence and sense of a deeply frayed society running through the incidents that culminates in a presidential address and mass demonstration in the center city, but for an extraordinary lunch that the actor – accidently, courtesy of a chapel’s oddly attractive one-note tolling - shares with a working class mechanic priest. That scene itself is worth the price of admission as is each of these self-contained and sufficiently dramatic portraits. However, as one of Handke’s walking books – 60 k words long or short - it therefore makes slow progress, and the progress - when described - can be astonishingly grueling - unimaginable so to railway, plane or bus visitor.
As the actor leaves the house he first has to work his way through a forest that has a „forest madman” who will remind the Handke reader of a similar creature in Handke’s great play Voyage by Dugout – The Play abobt the Film about the War [fn] who stinks like a cadaver and emits vile curses for everyone to shut up – I recognized him as one of these dispersed by the Yugoslav wars living in a reconstituting prairie here in Seattle, a big Slavic guy, scared like the proverbial little girl. „Where are you from?” – I wanted to know his tribe - „Here, Seattle.” He and his single blanket wouldn’t even let me buy him a cup of coffee. What those people did to each other! Civil wars seem indeed to be the worst.
He comes on the once refugium of a once carpenter apprentice, aged 16 like his own son. He notes the changing sky. It is a transitional chapter and nature appears to be in transition too. He also engages in some truly odd asides or mental speculations, perhaps just to keep himself from being bored: various items are transformed into what one would generically call "fools gold" of every kind, meant to trick potential fellow walker into being educated and accurately informed. Our actor has a fine way of working his way directly over just about any kind of obstacle. The immigrant he calls the last man on earth, but then forbids himself such grim thoughts. This chapter, that contains no end of beautiful observations of nature, ends on this fairly somber note.
Once out of the forest the actor encounters, in one outlieing region numerous of the aging demented being taken for their daily shuffle. He comes upon an old acquaintance, once neighbor friend in a different country, who too has lost his marbles, on the Gobi desert – but The Great Fall, for those in a comparing frame of mind, is nothing like that projection screen for readers Afternoon of the Writer where ample room is left for the reader-writer to imagine himself on such an walk and where Handke projects so much of his innerworld – his fears, his wishes, murderous impulses, inverted grandiosity, very much in the subtly ironic manner of his favorite Goethe’s Elective Affinit;, justfied satisfaction, as well of course as the finest lyrical description of a walk down the Salzburg’s Moenchsberg and through town and time spent in a grim dive and back up-hill – an account of just a few hours.
There are the juvenile gangs in districts closer to town. At a huge deserted railway yard the actor is waylaid by two cops who pounce on him as only cops with too liitle work can and who suspect and treat him, a foreigner, as a terrorist and to the third degree – I have had similar encounters in the most deserted strethes in an over-policed world – but the mere show of my out of date and possibly fake – how could they tell?  NY City Press I.D and they are gone like the wind that brought them, no apologies.
The star actor is on his way to Paris to receive an award from the nation’s president [during the course of his ruminations he decides to skip the ceremony] and to play, in a film, an amok-running madman - a beserker character out of Handke’s psyche from as far back as the three long fuguing poems in Nonsense & Happiness [fn]
analytic-comments.blogspot.com/2009/06/fugueing-section-from-part-ii-of-psycho.html
 and recurring ever since, if you are familiar with his texts and their marvelous surfeits, of the affinity Handke feels with the idiots he runs into – a high end autist’s affinity it is. - At a significant moment, the actor – described as being on the order of a DeNiro who „becomes the raging bull” – sees an amok-runner staring at him from the Metro window and then realizes that that amok-runner is a reflection of himself! It is one of those great instances of Handke’s projecting, and realizing it, and perhaps merely playing - though in a superbly convincing manner - will then extirpate that impulse once and for all? - and Handke leaves it at that and does not, as he has not in the past fifty plus years that I have been translating and reading amok-running texts of his, seek to fathom the origin of or persistence of that impulse. At another point,  Handke’s supremely sensitive antennae project world-wide imminent road-rage breaking out as even the closest of neighbors turn on each other and Handke makes it a point to discount what he terms the suggestion of „psycho-physicists” that the explosion of aggression is due to a lack of inter-European wars during the past 75 years. Well no, „pscho-physicists” in the form of those educated by Kohut in Self Psychology - which meanwhile has indeed defined the quarks of the self to the same degree that modern physics has sub-atomic particles - has far more refined notions why generation upon generation of psychic deprivation in a world of capitalist competition and the culture industry and political falsehood and the false promises of advertising  and their consequences have a dire effect on the emotional household of the individual, creating powder kegs – across all class lines! Handke, great activist writer, and descriptor, continuous developer of the capacity of prose narration, one of the best antennae, once again shows his backwardness in matters state of the art of psychology; it persists since it manifested itself in some incredibly backward comments on narcissism in the otherwise great One Dark Night I Left My Silent House. Adorno, in other words, too would disapprove!
The actor is a moody fellow. At one point a starvation artist’s hunger seizes him – ‘Hadn’t he had breakfast among all the stuff he was doing at that house?’ occurred to me – as well hunger to consume his woman whom he must have consumed to previous night to wake up so well-disposed. All around horny fellow you conclude. But soon enough there will be a down moment.
Great Fall being the account of a single day’s walk one is tempted to compare it to The Afternoon of the Writer. Moments of misanthropism
to be sure as the sight of mindless groupings; wonderful long descriptions of the light and dark of the sky as the day progresses and the actor enters an equally light entrancing Paris and the heat-lightning provides premonitions of a second thunderstorm. The actor’s maddening walkabout there - after a frightful mass assembly that viewed the president’s declaration of war has broken up - will remind all those who have wandered about at night in a heavily peopled megalopolis and without a clear goal and too much time on their hands - a sequence rendered in an astonishingly film-like intense manner - I can’t summarize in any other way but to say that it becomes an extraordinary experience for the reader; Handke at his best.
The novel’s last sentence „and then there was the Great Fall” – as the actor is about to I suppose marry this woman – the same woman as the previous night!- seven years later in the Fruitthief Handke is – hear hear! – starts to fancy the „marriage sacrement”! – is  a true puzzle; until you realize that  Handke likes to sign off with „infinitely mysterious,” as he does his Fruitthief and some other titles, and I think this final sentence is just another most intriguing way of doing so – no need for a fall of any kind.
Seagull, now Handke’s second English language publisher have done a bang-up job with a book on the same high order as all of Handke’s shorter novels.
 Krishna Winston’s translation is a true delight; and I only wish that Seagull issue some of the other importat titles that Farrar, Straus has neglected. Handke’s second novel Der Hausierer, the nearly socialist realist portrait of a saltworks Kali; and a number of all important notebook condensations Geschichte des Bleistift’s, Gestern Unterwegs [avaiblable in translation into Romance languages], along the line of its sole exmaple that exists in English, the so revelatory Weight of thre World.

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NOTES

Fn] That forest madman is also a real person and has become a Serbian facebook friend of mine and is an instance where Handke’s impulse to „save” was successful. Novo was arrested in Germany for having failed to prevent a human rights violation during the Yugoslav wars  - imagine that, the successors of the Nazi Reich will arrest a foreign national for not stopping a war crime! Handke, hearing of the case, managed to get Novo released and then was best man at his wedding.
 https://tinyurl.com/y8awptpz









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